Lab. Magmas et Volcans

Université de Clermont-Ferrand

Le Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans (LMV) est une unité mixte de recherche de l'UBP, du CNRS et de l'IRD. C'est aussi l'un des laboratoires de l'OPGC. Son objectif principal est de comprendre l'ensemble des processus magmatiques et volcaniques, depuis la fusion dans le manteau terrestre jusqu'à l'éruption en surface. En partenariat avec des équipes issus de 5 autres laboratoires de l'UBP, une équipe du BRGM et l'OPGC, le LMV coordonne le Labex ClerVolc, l'un des lauréats de l'appel à projet « laboratoire d'excellence » du programme « Investissements d'avenir » 2010.


http://lmv.univ-bpclermont.fr/experimentation-analogique/


Le laboratoire possède l'équipement technique permettant de réaliser des expériences de volcanologie expérimentale sur modèles réduits en utilisant des matériaux dits analogues (divers fluides visqueux et matériaux granulaires) qui respectent les lois de similitudes entre prototypes naturels et expérimentaux. La modélisation analogique est une approche performante conduisant à l'analyse qualitative et quantitative des phénomènes physiques associés aux processus magmatiques et volcaniques.


Les thèmes de recherches les plus couramment abordés dans cette structure expérimentale sont :


- Les écoulements gaz-particules : La dynamique des écoulements pyroclastiques.


- La déformation, la croissance et l’effondrement des édifices volcaniques.


- La mise en place des laves (coulées, dômes, dykes).


Dispositifs pour étudier les écoulements gaz-particules :

Ecoulement granulaire initialement fluidisé dans un réservoir et se propageant dans un chenal.

PUBLICATIONS (depuis 1998) :


Valderrama P., Roche O., Samaniego P., Van Wyk De Vries B., Araujo G., 2018. Granular fingering as a mechanism for ridge formation in debris avalanche deposits: Laboratory experiments and implications for Tutupaca volcano, Peru, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research vol.349, pp.409-418, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.12.004.


Buckland H.M., Eychenne J., Rust A.C., Cashman K.V., 2018. Relating the physical properties of volcanic rocks to the characteristics of ash generated by experimental abrasion, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research vol.349, pp. 335-350, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.11.017.


Delannay R., Valance A., Mangeney A., Roche O., Richard P., 2017. Granular and particle-laden flows: from laboratory experiments to field observations, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics vol.50, pp.053001, doi:10.1088/1361-6463/50/5/053001.


Brothelande E., Peltier A., Got J.-L., Merle O., Lardy M., Garaebiti E., 2016. Constraints on the source of resurgent doming inferred from analogue and numerical modeling — Implications on the current feeding system of the Yenkahe dome–Yasur volcano complex (Vanuatu), Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research vol.322, pp.225-240, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.11.023.


Brothelande E., Merle O., 2015. Estimation of magma depth for resurgent domes: an experimental approach, Earth and Planetary Science Letters vol.412, pp.143-151, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.12011.


Chedeville C., Roche O., 2015. Influence of slope angle on pore pressure generation and kinematics of pyroclastic flows: insights from laboratory experiments, Bulletin of Volcanology vol.77, pp.96, doi:10.1007/s00445-015-0981-4.


Daniels K.A., Menand T., 2015. An experimental investigation of dyke injection under regional extensional stress, Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth vol.120, pp.2014-2035, 3, doi:10.1002/2014JB011627.


Merle O., 2015. The scaling of experiments on volcanic systems, Frontiers in Earth Science vol.3, 26, doi:10.3389/feart.2015.00026.


Valentine G.A., Graettinger A.H., Macorps E., Ross P.S., White J.D.L., Döhring E., Sonder I., 2015. Experiments with vertically and laterally migrating subsurface explosions with applications to the geology of phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal explosion craters and diatremes, Bulletin of Volcanology vol.77, p.15, doi:10.1007/s00445-015-0901-7.


Byrne P.K., Holohan E.P., Kervyn M., Van Wyk De Vries B., Troll V.R., 2014. Analogue modelling of volcano flank terrace formation on Mars. vol.401, p.185-202, Volcanism and Tectonism Across the Inner Solar System, In: Platz, T., Massironi, M., Byrne, P. K., Hiesinger, H. (ed.), doi:10.1144/SP401.14.


Chanceaux L., Menand T., 2014. Solidification effects in sill formation: An experimental approach, Earth and Planetray Science Letters 403, 79-88. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.06.018.


Chédeville C., Roche O., 2014. Autofluidization of pyroclastic flows propagating on rough substrates as shown by laboratory experiments, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 119, 1764-1776. doi:10.1002/2013JB010554.


Farin M., Mangeney A., Roche O., 2014. Fundamental changes of granular flow dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface 119, pp.504-532. doi:10.1002/2013JF002750.


Kervyn M., Van Wyk De Vries B., Walter T.R., Njome M.S., Suh C.E., Ernst G.G.J., 2014. Directional flank spreading at Mount Cameroon volcano: Evidence from analogue modeling, Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth vol.119, pp.7542-7563, doi:10.1002/2014JB011330.


Rowley P.J., Roche O., Druitt T., Cas R., 2014. Experimental study of dense pyroclastic density currents using sustained gas-fluidized granular flows, Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 855, pp.76. doi:10.1007/s00445-014-0855-1.


Roche O. , Y. Niño, A. Mangeney, B. Brand, N. Pollock, G. Valentine, 2013. Dynamic pore pressure variations induce substrate erosion by pyroclastic flows, Geology, in press.


Le Corvec, N., Menand, T., Lindsay, J., 2013. Interaction of ascending magma with pre-existing crustal fractures in monogenetic basaltic volcanism: an experimental approach, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50142.


Kavanagh, J. L., Menand, T., and Daniels, K. A., 2013. Gelatine as a crustal analogue: Determining elastic properties for modelling magmatic intrusions, Tectonophysics, 582, 101-111.


Roche O., J.C. Phillips, K. Kelfoun, 2013. Pyroclastic density currents, Modeling Volcanic Processes (Eds. S.A. Faggents, T.K.P. Gregg, R.C.M. Lopes), Cambridge University Press, pp. 203-229.


Roche O., 2012. Depositional processes and gas pore pressure in pyroclastic flows: an experimental perspective, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, pp.1807-1820, doi: 10.1007/s00445-012-0639-4.


Meruane C., A. Tamburrino, O. Roche, 2012. Dynamics of dense granular flows of small-and-large-grains mixtures in an ambient fluid, Physical Review E, 86, 026311, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.026311.


Montserrat S., A. Tamburrino, Roche O., Y. Niño, 2012. Pore fluid pressure diffusion in defluidizing granular columns, Journal of Geophysical Research–Earth Surface, 117, F02034, doi:10.1029/2011JF002164.


Roche O., M. Atalli, A. Mangeney, A. Lucas, 2011. On the run-out distance of geophysical gravitational flows: insight from fluidized granular collapse experiments, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 311, pp.375-385, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.09.023.


Menand, T., 2011. Physical controls and depth of emplacement of igneous bodies: A review, Tectonophysics, 500, pp.11-19.


Mathieu L, van Wyk de Vries B, 2011. The interaction between volcanoes and strike-slip, transtensional and transpressional fault zones: Analogue models and natural examples, Journal of Structural Geology doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2011.03.003


Menand, T., Daniels, K., and Benghiat, P., 2010. Dyke propagation and sill formation in a compressive tectonic environment, J. Geophys. Res. 115, B08201, 10.1029/2009JB006791.


Mangeney A., O. Roche, O. Hungr, N. Mangold, G. Faccanoni, A. Lucas, 2010. Erosion and  mobility in granular collapse over sloping beds, Journal of Geophysical Research–Earth Surface, 115, F03040, doi:10.1029/2009JF001462.


Merle, O. van Wyk de Vries B. and Barde-Cabusson S., 2010. Hydrothermal calderas, Bulletin of Volcanology, 72, pp.131-147.


Andrade D, van Wyk de Vries B., 2010. Structural analysis of the early stages of catastrophic stratovolcano flank-collapse using analogue models, Bulletin of Volcanology  10.1007/s00445-010-0363-x


Roche O., S. Montserrat, Y. Niño, A. Tamburrino, 2010. Pore fluid pressure and internal kinematics of gravitational laboratory air-particle flows: insights into the emplacement dynamics of pyroclastic flows, Journal of Geophysical Research–Solid Earth, 115, B09206, doi:10.1029/2009JB007133.


Girolami L., O. Roche, T.H. Druitt, T. Corpetti, 2010. Velocity fields and depositional processes in laboratory ash flows, Bulletin of Volcanology, 72, pp.747–759, doi: 10.1007/s00445-010-0356-9.


Meruane C., A. Tamburrino, O. Roche, 2010. On the role of the ambient fluid on gravitational granular flow dynamics, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 648: 381-404, doi: 10.1017/S0022112009993181.


Lénat, J-F.; Merle, O. and Lespagnol L., 2009. La Réunion : an example of channelled hot spot plume, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 184, pp.1-13


Kervyn, M, Ernst G, van Wyk de Vries B, Matheiu L, 2009. Analogue modelling of the location of flank vents, Journal of Geophysical Research  (in press).


Wooller L., van Wyk de Vries, B. Cecchi E, Rymer H, 2009. Analogue models of the effect of long-term basement fault movement on volcanic edifices, Bulletin of Volcanology (in press).


Roche O., S. Montserrat, Y. Niño, A. Tamburrino, 2008. Experimental observations of water-like behavior of initially fluidized, unsteady dense granular flows and their relevance for the propagation of pyroclastic flows, Journal of Geophysical Research–Solid Earth, 113, B12203, doi: 10.1029/2008JB005664.


Mathieu L, van Wyk de Vries B, *Holohan E, Troll, 2008. Dykes, cups, saucers and sills: analogue experiments on magma intrusion into brittle rocks,  271, 1-4, pp.1-13.


Shea T, van Wyk de Vries B., 2008. Structural analysis and analogue modelling of the kinematics and dynamics of large-scale rock avalanches, GEOSPHERE, 4, pp.657-686


Girolami L., T.H. Druitt, O. Roche, Z. Khrabrykh, 2008. Propagation and hindered settling of laboratory ash flows, Journal of Geophysical Research – Solid Earth, 113, B02202, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005074.


Barde-Cabusson, S. and Merle, O., 2007. From steep-slope volcano to flat caldera floor, Geophysical Research Letter 34, L10305, doi: 10.1029/2007GL029784.


Menand, T. and Phillips, J. C., 2007b. A note on gas segregation in dykes and sills at high gas fractions, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 162, pp.185-188.


Menand, T. and Phillips, J. C., 2007a. Gas segregation in dykes and sills, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 159, pp.393-408.


Borgia, A. ; Grieco, G. ; Brondi, F. ; Badali, M., Merle, O. ; Pasquarè, G., Martielli, L. and di Nardo,  T., 2006. Shale diapirism in the Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Northern Apenine, Bologna, Italy, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, B08406, doi :10.1029/20034JB003375.


Canon-Tapia, E. and Merle, 2006. Dyke nucleation and early growth from pressurized magma chambers: Insights from analogue models, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158, pp.207-220.


Merle, O.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Maury, R.C. ; Legendre, C. ; Guille, G. and Blais, S., 2006. Volcano core collapse triggered by regional faulting, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158, pp.269-280.


Kavanagh, J. L., Menand, T. and Sparks, R. S. J., 2006. An experimental investigation of sill formation and propagation in layered elastic media, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 245, pp.799-813.


Roche O., M.A. Gilbertson, J.C. Phillips, R.S.J. Sparks, 2006. The influence of particle size on the flow of initially fluidized powders, Powder Technology, 166, pp.167-174. doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2006.05.010.


Menand, T. and Woods, A. W., 2005. Dispersion, scale, and time dependence of mixing zones under gravitationally stable and unstable displacements in porous media, Water Resour. Res., 41, W05014, 10.1029/2004WR003701.


Buisson, C. and Merle, O., 2005. Influence of the crustal thickness on dome destabilization, in Manga, M. and Ventura, G. eds., Kinematics and dynamics of lava flows, Geological Society of America Special Paper, 396, pp. 181-188.


Lescinsky, D. and Merle, O., 2005. Extensional and compressional strain in lava flows and the formation of fractures in surface crust, in Manga, M. and Ventura, G. eds., Kinematics and dynamics of lava flows : Geological Society of America Special Paper, 396, p.161-177.


Roche O., M.A. Gilbertson, J.C. Phillips, R.S.J. Sparks, 2005. Inviscid behaviour of fines-rich pyroclastic flows inferred from experiments on gas-particles mixtures, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 240, pp.401-414. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.09.053


Roche O., M.A. Gilbertson, J.C. Phillips, R.S.J. Sparks, 2004. Experimental study of gas-fluidized granular flows with implications for pyroclastic flow emplacement, Journal of Geophysical Research – Solid Earth, 109: doi 10.1029/2003JB002916.


Oehler J-F, van Wyk de Vries B., Labazuy P., Lénat J–F., 2004. Gravitational destabilization of oceanic shield volcanoes on Low Strength Layers (LSL). An analogue modelling approach, Journal of volcanology and Geothermal research, Volume 144, Issues 1-4, pp.169-189.


Donnadieu, F.; Kelfoun, K.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Cecchi, E. and Merle, O., 2003. Digital photogrammetry as a tool in analogue modelling : applications to volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal research, 123, pp.161-180.


Merle, O. and Lénat, J-F., 2003. Hybrid collapse mechanism at Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean), Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, pp.2166-2176.


Michon, L. and Merle, O., 2003. Mode of lithospheric extension : conceptual models from analogue modeling, Tectonics, 22, 4, pp.1028


Menand, T., Raw, A. and Woods, A. W., 2003. Thermal inertia and reversing buoyancy in flow in porous media, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (6), 1291,10.1029/2002GL016294.


Menand, T. and Tait, S. R., 2002. The propagation of a buoyant liquid-filled fissure from a source under constant pressure: An experimental approach, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (B11), 10.1029/2001JB000589.


Buisson, C. and Merle, O., 2002. Experiments on internal strain in lava dome cross-sections, Bulletin of Volcanology 64, pp.363-371.


Roche O., M.A. Gilbertson, J.C. Phillips, R.S.J. Sparks, 2002. Experiments on deaerating granular flows and implications for pyroclastic flow mobility, Geophysical Research Letters, 29, doi 10.1029/2002GL014819.


Roche O., T.H. Druitt, R.A.F. Cas, 2001. Experimental aqueous fluidization of ignimbrite, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 112, pp.267-280.


Branquet Y, van Wyk de Vries B., 2001. Effets de la charge des édifices volcaniques sur la propagation de structures régionales compressives : exemples naturels et modèles expérimentaux, Comptes Rendus de l'académie des Sciences, 333, pp.455-461


Roche O., T.H. Druitt, 2001. Onset of caldera collapse during ignimbrite eruptions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 191, pp.191-202.


Merle, O., Vidal, N. and van Wyk de Vries, B., 2001. Experiments on vertical basement fault reactivations below volcanoes, Journal of Geophysical Research 106, B2, pp.2153-2162.


Donnadieu, F. and Merle, O., 2001. Geometrical constraints of the 1980 Mount St. Helens intrusion from analogue models, Geophysical Research letter 28, 4, pp.639-642.


Menand, T. and Tait, S. R., 2001. A phenomenological model for precursor volcanic eruptions, Nature, 411, pp.678-680.


Roche O., B. van Wyk de Vries, T.H. Druitt, 2001. Sub-surface structures and collapse mechanisms of summit pit-craters, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 105, pp.1-18.


Callot, J.P.; Geoffroy, L. et Merle, O., 2000. Approche expérimentale de la tectonique de l’Etna, Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 171, 1, pp.59-70.


Vidal, N. and Merle, O., 2000. Reactivation of basement faults beneath volcanoes: a new model of flank collapse, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 99, pp.926. 


Merle, O. and Donnadieu, F., 2000. Indentation of volcanic edifices by the ascending magma. From: Vendeville, B., Mart, Y. & Vigneresse, J-L. (eds) from the Artic to the Mediterranean: salt, shale and igneous diapirs in and around Europe, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 174, pp.43-53.


Michon, L. and Merle, O., 2000. Crustal structures of the Rhinegraben and the Massif Central grabens: an experimental approach, Tectonics 19, 5, pp.896-904.


Roche O., T.H. Druitt, O. Merle, 2000. Experimental study of caldera formation, Journal of Geophysical Research – Solid Earth, 105, pp.395-416.


Merle, O. and Borgia, A., 1996. Scaled experiments on volcanic spreading, Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, B6, pp.13805-13817.


van Wyk de Vries, B. and Merle, O., 1996. The effect of volcanic construct on rift fault patterns, Geology, 24, pp.643-646.


Donnadieu, F. and Merle, O., 1998. Experiments on the indentation process during cryptodome intrusion: new insights into Mt St Helens deformation, Geology, 26, pp.79-82.


Merle, O., 1998. Internal strain within lava flows from analogue modelling, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 81, 3-4, pp.189-206.


van Wyk de Vries, B. and Merle, O., 1998. Extension induced by volcanic loading in strike-slip fault zones, Geology,  26, pp.983-986.

EQUIPEMENTS PRINCIPAUX :


Appareillages d’expérimentation :


EGRAFLU : Chenal pour écoulements granulaires fluidisés. Dispositif  permettant de générer des écoulements air-particules par relâchement d’une colonne granulaire fluidisée dans un réservoir. Dimensions (3m x 0.5m x 0.1m).


EGRA : Chenal pour écoulements granulaires continus. Dispositif  permettant de générer des écoulements granulaires par relâchement continu de particules depuis un réservoir situé en hauteur. Dimensions (3.5m x 0.3m x 0.1m).


INTRUMAG : Cuve pour modélisation d’intrusions magmatiques. Cuve en plexiglas permettant de préparer des solides de gélatine (analogue aux roches). Dimensions (0.4m x 0.4m x 0.4m).


BM : Bain-Marie. Appareillage permettant l’injection de fluide à température contrôlée entre 5°C et 99°C à 0.5°C près. Capacité 10 litres.


PERISPUMP : Pompe péristaltique. Pompe Watson Marlow série 520S de type péristaltique (de 0.1RPM à 220RPM) permettant l’injection de fluide entre 0.04 ml/min et 3.5 l/min. Dimensions (0.3m x 0.4m x 0.2m).


CHAUFIND : Chauffe-eau industriel. Capacité 20 litres.


REFRIGIND : Réfrigérateur industriel. Appareillage permettant la préparation de solides de gélatine à température contrôlée. Dimensions (totales extérieures : 0.75m x 0.7m x 1.5m ; latérales intérieures : 677mm x 515mm).


Métrologie analogique et numérique :


- 20 capteurs de pression de fluide ICSensor et échantillonneur haute-fréquence.

- Caméra haute-vitesse Fastcam SA3.

- Système de mesure du module élastique d’Young des solides de gélatine.

- Thermocouples et datalogger.


Acquisition et traitement des données :


- 2 ordinateurs portables.

- Camescope.

- 1 ordinateur portable.

  1. -Licence Matlab avec Image Processing Toolbox.


Divers :


Atelier de mécanique

RESPONSABLES SCIENTIFIQUES ET TECHNIQUES :


O. ROCHE (CR), T. MENAND (MCF), O. MERLE (PR)

CONTACTS :


Olivier ROCHE

Chargé de Recherche, IRD

Directeur Adjoint du LVM

LMV

5 rue Kessler

63038 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex

France

Tel. : +33 (0)4 73 34 67 68

Fax : +33 (0)4 73 34 67 44

O.Roche@opgc.univ-bpclermont.fr


T. MENAND

Maître de Conférence UBO/IRD

LMV

5 rue Kessler

63038 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex

France

Tel. : +33 (0)4 73 34 67 48

Fax : +33 (0)4 73 34 67 44

T.Menand@opgc.univ-bpclermont.fr


Olivier MERLE

Professeur, UBP

LMV

5 rue Kessler

63038 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex

France

Tel. : +33 (0)4 73 34 67 32

Fax : +33 (0)4 73 34 67 44

O.Merle@opgc.fr


Timothy DRUITT

Professeur, UBP

LMV

5 rue Kessler

63038 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex

France

Tel. : +33 (0)4 73 34 67 18

Fax : +33 (0)4 73 34 67 44

T.Druitt@opgc.univ-bpclermont.fr


Autres utilisateurs locaux :


Thésards et Post-Docs : Corentin Chédeville, Lola Chanceaux, Peter Rowley, Elodie Brothelande


PRESENTATION :